Jhang History

History of District Jhang

The early history of Jhang district is greatly circumscribed by the fact that, in the nearest past, the now inhabited villages of the Chenab and Jhelum rivers were subject to continual inundations in which conditions settled habitations were impossible. In that period the Bar areas were probably inhabited and cultivated portion of the country. The numerous Thehs, of mounds which indicate the sites of former towns and villages in the Bars, were indication of the presence of considerable population and the frequent Nullahs, some of which have very appearance of being artificial pointed to a high state of development of agriculture. As thee water level deepens the Bars, no doubt, had to be abandoned, the stoppage of floods and the increasing depth of water table made there cultivation impossible. The higher portion of the rives valleys were then occupied. High mounds were raise or chosen above flood level as well for protection against enemies. The mounds, of which the principal is that at Shorkot, are dotted about the higher lands of the southern portion of the district and again occur in the Vichan, which suffers from flood both form the Chenab and Jhelum, but in the north owing to the higher level of the country above the river, such precautions against flood were unnecessary and no mounds are found. It is said that Alexander of Macedonia passed through a part of this district while going back to the sea. But first glimpse of this district appeared in Tuzk-e-Babari written by Babar in the year 1526 A.D.

The government of Bhera, Khushab and Chenab was held by Syed Ali Khan. He red the Khutaba in the name of Iskandar Bhlol and was subjected to him. Being alarmed he abandoned the town of Bhera, crossed the river Jhelum and made shiukot, a place in the district of Behra, his capital. After a year or two the Afhgans having conceived suspicions against Syed Ali Khan became alarmed at their hostility and surrendered the country to Daulat Khan. Who was Governor of Lahore. Daulat Khan gave Bhera to his eldest son Ali Khan. Earlier in the same book Babar speaks of of the county of Bhera, Khushab, Chebab and Chiniot as having been long in the possession to the Turk, and  ruled over by the family of Timur Beg and his adherents and dependents ever since his invasion on India in 1390. The matter of most interest to the historians of Jhang is the locality and limits of these countries, where was the Chenab country? Was it the Shiukot, where Syed Ali Khan fled? Is it the Shorkot of today? If so, how could Babar write of it as being in the district of Bhera. For this Khushab country must have intervened, Shiukot has been identified in Khushab. Whether this is right or wrong. Jhang and Sials were not of significant importance to be mentioned at the commencement  of 16th century A.D. they remained equally unknown and unnoticed during the two centuries that elapsed between Babar’s first invasion and the through of Muhammad Shah A.D. 1720.

It was not until the stirring times during which the dynasty of the Mughals tottered and fell, that half century and that witnessed rise of the Sikhs and the inroad of Ahmad Shah, temporarily independents. Previous to that period the country was probably held by detached settlers of older date; in Jhang and Shorkot by the Nauls, Bhangus, Dabs and Herls, whom the sials over powered and in Chiniot by stronger class of Lalies,Harals, Bhattis and Nissowana, Whom they never succeeded in subduing. The country was ruled usually from Bhera, and sometimes from Multan. The collection of revenue from population inhabiting the Bar and Desert of the Thall and influence of the sials was limited to the sub- urban areas of Jhang which was included in the Government of Chiniot, Shorkot and the throne of Delhi was occupied by the Lodhis. There was, however, no resident governor and the Sials paid their revenue to the Nouls who were then dominant in this part of the country. Mal Khan once visited Chiniot obtained the Farman (order) of the Jhang revenue from the governor and established contacts with the Mughal empire directly for the first time. No important event occurred till Walidad Khan, 12th in decent from Mal Khan, gained power and ruled this area. Walidad khan chief tain that ever ruled equaled the Sials. His talent for civil administration was as a military leader. Under this beneficent rule the people for the first time learnt what justice was, severe punishments and rigorous of enforcement of the law put a stop to crime, a moderate assessment of local and revenue resulted in an extension of cultivation and  the construction of a number of wells that now seems fabulous while the Kingdom of the Sials advanced to limits that never knew before, and has never reached since when Walidad Khan succeeded his father, the boundaries of his Kingdom most narrow.

Within a few kilometers of the Jhang Fort to the north lay lands that acknowledged and more powerful chief of Khiwa. Southward another and powerful chief a Nithrana Sial with his, headquarters at Mirak Sial, 41 Kilometers from Jhang, ruled over the country from Shorkot to within 24 kilometers of Jhang. In the Vichhan was the independent chief of Massan, a Sahibana Sial whose territory marched with that of the Bhairo Khokhars to the north and with the villages of Shah Jewana, subject to the Syed Latif, descendant of Pir Fateh Khan, on the north-east. Beyond the Syed came the lands of the Rihan chief of Kalowal. Across the Chenab, Rahidpur was the seat of Sial chiefs, sprung form same stock as Walidad and whom he never in the heights of his power regarded as other than allies. Eastward the sovereignty of the Bar was disputed by the Kamalia chief. The relation in which those chiefs stood to the ruling power in the first quarter of the 18th century is not clear, but this much appear that they were independent of the Jhang Sials, and probably paid or often did not pay their revenue direct to the government of Chiniot and Multan. AS was the custom ,as an ancestor Mal Khan had done with the Nauls, so did Walidad Khan with these neighboring chiefs of Khiwa, Massan, Shorkot, Mirak Sial and Kamalia. He first obtained permission from the Lahore Governor of the right to collect their revenue tribute, and his next step was to make them subject to himself. His first object was secured by stratagem. The Delhi Empire was fast hastening to its dissolution, and when the time came for payment of revenue Walidad pretended to be ill, and delayed payment. At the same time, he continued to have hints conveyed to the neighboring chiefs that he was a defaulter only because the government of the day was too weak to enforce the collection of its dues. The rival chiefs fell into the snare and refused payment. No sooner had they thus publicity thrown off the yoke then Walidad Khan repatriated to Chiniot and paid his revenue. The Delhi governor complained of the conduct of the other chiefs and Walidad at once offered to pay up their revenues also if their countries were handed over to him. His offer was accepted. A small force of cavalry was deputed to assist him, and Walidad Khan then sent for the chiefs who obeyed the summons. They were thrown into prison for a short time, but were subsequently released and granted service Jagirs. The subjection of these chiefs was followed by the reduction of the Syed rule of Raajoa, Latif Shah, and of the Khokhars of Mari and Bhairo. An invasion of the Balochis of Sahiwal in aid of the Khokhars was alos repelled with loss by his general Sharif Khan Aliana. Lzzat Bakhsh Rihan was his deputy in Kalowal. It is not known how Walidad Khan acquired the Kalowal llaqa, but most probably he obtained it as a portion of the Chiniot province. The governor-ship of the Chiniot province was next bestowed upon the loyal (for he never professed himself other than slave of the Delhi empire) and fortunate Sial chief. His supremacy was now acknowledged over the whole of the country included in the district of Jhang as it at present exists, together with large slices of the neighboring districts of Sahiwal and Dera Ismail Khan, the governor of the Multan.

His successor Inayat Ullah was his nephew, and had also married his daughter. This chief was little inferior as an administrator to his uncle, and in military genius was probably more than his equal. He is said to have fought and won 22 battles. He reigned 40 years from 1747 to 1787. Able as he was, he could not stem the relentness of the Sikh victories and at his death the Sial ascendancy was cleary on the wane. Amid encroachments of the Bhongi Sardars from the north, inroads from Multan on the south, successive raids by the plundering free bookers and that accompanied Ahmad Shah’s invasions. Attacked by the Balochis and Tiwanas and disunion and dissensions among the Sials themselves. It was no easy matter to pilot the ship of Sial rule safely into haven.

There are more facts about Inayatullah’s reign than others. At the commencement associated his brother-in-law Shahadat Khan with him in the chieftainship. They sat on one throne sheeted their swords in one seaboard and drank together and, in a word rivaled in their friendships the most renowned examples afforded by aniquity. This perennial affection did not last long. A quarrel took place. Shahdat Khan left Jhang and withdrew to Kadirpur. He got an army together there and marched upon Jhang. After crossing the Chenab he met at Sultanlpur by Inayyat ullah Khan, and was defeated and Slain there. Meanwhile an Afghan named Din Muhammad had seized upon . Mari be beyond Kot Lsa Shah, but Inayatullah after disposing of Shahdat Khan marched against the invader and defeated and drove him out of the Jhang territory. The Sials of Rashidpur had now become powerful, and were noted for the turbulence and bravery. To punish them for some disobedience, Innayat ullah obtained the aid some Durrani horsemen from the governor of the day and harried their lands. In turn for this forty horsemen of the Sials Rashidpur gave the chief a taste of their quality by taking him as prisoner at Jhang, and carrying him off under the eyes of his army to Rashidpur. They kept him in confinement in the castle of Sat in the Thall for six months. Apparently, neither during this, nor the previous reign, had the rule of the Sial extended very far down the right bank of the Chenab, for among Inayatuulah’s achievements are reckoned hid defeat of the two Sikhs who were the sub governor of Islamabad, and the annexation of their territories. This censed the governor of Multan, and an ambuscade was laid by Inayatullah while on a visit to Shorkot. He, however, got word of the plan from the Sargana of Khud Sagana, and collecting an army of Kathias and Komlana, Rajbana and Sargana Sials, defeated the Multan troops with great slaughter at Kotla Afghana close to Shorkot.

At one time Inayatullah found it politic to pay Malik Sher Tiwana blackmail as the cheapest way of protecting the outlying pargona of  Mari, subsequently thinking himself strong enough, he discontinued the payment. Sher Khan then assembled his clans, and ,driving the Sials out of Khai, a few kilometers north of the present district boundary on the right bank of the Jhelum, laid seize to that Langer, now Thatti Langer,just inside the present boundary Here Inayatullah met and defeated the Tiwana force. Both sides are said to have had some Sikh chiefs, as auxiliaries at another period the Sial chief defeated and subdued the Balochis of Haiderabad in the Thall. He also took the fort of Uch founded by a Bilot Syed who has settled in the Kacjjo during his reign. It was in this reign that the Bhangi Sardars first made their power felt. In about 1769 A.D. Inayatullah ceased to pay tribute, and recaptured Chiniot but had apparently again fallen into the hands of the Bhangis before his death. It is related Inayatullah that he met Jehan Khan of Kabul (while on his way back) the grand father of Dost Muhammad Khan of Labul who asked for one of his sisters in marriage. There were three four un-married at once and declined the proffered alliance on the ground that he had no sister unmarried.

After the death of Inayatullah Khan the encroachment of Sikhs attained enormous properties and the Sials could not withstand their advance. The internal feud made them ever weaker and eventually in 1801 A.D. they were completely reduced by Ranjit Singh.

Before the treaty of Bherowal the British government undertook to maintain the authority of the Lahore Darbar and to administer the affairs of Punjab during the minority of the young Maharja Dilip Singh. Officers from East India Company’s services were selected to carry out summary settlement of the land revenue. The Jhang district with the exception of the Garh Maharaja and Ahmedpur Illaqas had been occupied in 1846 by the British Darber during the contest between the Lahore government and Mal Raj and when peace was made, it was retained , although  it had previously formed portion of the Multan province, and been held by Sawan Mal. Upon annextation of the Punjab in 1849 the whole of the district of Jhang passed under British sovereignty.

On annexation, the old fiscal division of the Sikhs was retained within the Tehsil boundary. There were then three Tehsil namely, Jhang, Chiniot and Qadirpur, subsequent changes of boundary took place and Qadirpur Tehsil was given up and that of Shorkot constituted in 1861. The division of the district into four Tehsil of Chiniot, Jhang, Shorkot and Ahmad Pur Sial dates from this period and after independence this division had been maintained up till now. No important event took place and Qadirpur till 1947 when partition of sub-continent took place. Previously, the district was included in Multan division and afterwords in Sargodha division but now it has been affiliated with the Faisalabad division.

 

TimeLine of Jhang

 

Following changes have from time to time, been taken place in the District .

1206

Naula ruls was established on Jhang.

 

1460

Sials rule was established when Mal Khan Sial conquered Jhang by defeating the Nauls

 

1818

With the conquest of Multan, Jhang was included in the Sikh rule.

 

1848

Sikh were defeated and Jhang had gone unde the control of the Colonial Rulers.

 

1849

Jhang District was annexed.

 

1851

The greater part of Ravi Riverain villages were transferred to Multan.

 

1854

The Faruka Taluka, north of Kot Isa Shah of Jhang Tehsil, was transferred the then District Shahpur(Sargodha).

 

1856

The first settlement in the district was carried out. Land Revenue Assessment was also done along with the determination of proprietary rights, during the same period. But the most recent settlement took place in 1924-25 by the British Govt. in which new land revenue was also assessed.

 

1861

At early days of this year the Kalowal villages, west of the Chenab in Chiniot Tehsi were received from Shahpur District while the Garhmaharaja ilaqas were taken over from mazaffargarh. But tehsil of Kalwal and  Qadirpur were given up and that of Shorkot constituted. The existing divisions of district into the three teshsils of Chiniot Jhang and Shorkot, dates from this period.

 

1884

Thirteen rakhs of Chiniot Tehsil were transferred to the Gujranwala District and placed under the forest Department.

 

1890

Boundaries of Jhang were redelimited, according to which Layyah was excluded from Jhang and attached to Muzaffargarh district, Similarly Hyderabad of jhang was included to Mianwali, Pindi bhattian added to Gujranwala when Sahiwal was notified as a separate district under the name of Mantgomary.

 

1886

Lyallpur Tehsil was extablished as a tehsil of Jhang District, after the colonization of the Chenab Colony portion.

 

1899

The whole of the colonized Chenab Colony of Montgomery (Sahiwal) District, was added to the Lyllpur Tehsil of Jhang District.

 

1900

The Toba Tek Singh and samundri Tehsils were created, and 34 villages of the Layllpur Tehsil were included in Chiniot.

 

1904

Lyallpur was notified as a separate District. A small adjustment was made between Jhang and Toba Tek Singh tehsils by which the first absorbed 9 additional colony villages. In this year also whole of the portion of Kirana Bar, which had hitherto been included in th Chiniot Tehsil, was transferred to the Shahpur Distt.

 

1907

The Jhang Tehsil portion known as jungle Subhaga, comprising 18 colony villages, was transferred to Sargodha (Shahpur) District in order ot bring the whole of the Jhelum colony village within one district. That portion of the Sandal-bar colony, whichin themain had been allotted to Janglis and to Jhang-Hitharis (the portion of the Jhang branch of the Chenab –Colony) was detached from the colony and became a part of the Jhang District.

 

1913

Thirty –two villages of Toba Tek Singh Tehsil, were transferred to Jhang District and added to Shorkot Tehsil.

 

1917

Chak No.634, in which Shorkot Road Railway Station in situated, was transferred from the Faisalabad District and was attached to Shorkot Tehsil of Jhang District.

 

1948

After independence, the same/subdivisions of the district, Chiniot, Jhang and Shorkot were maintained, but the emergence of a new town, namely “Chenab Nagar” (the centre of Non-Muslim Qadiani Community) on the map of Jhang District, was the only Change since then.